Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its salts and transformation and degradation precursors
If OEHHA finalizes listing, manufacturers of products containing one or more of these chemicals must provide warnings on product labels within one year. Under Proposition 65 (Prop 65), individuals must provide warnings prior to exposure to a chemical identified by the State of California to cause cancer or reproductive harm. The duty to warn applies to most individuals causing an exposure, including product manufacturers, employers and individuals causing exposures in an affected area. Prop 65 requires the State of California maintain a list of chemicals that are known to the State to cause cancer, birth defects or other reproductive harm, or both. The list includes over 900 chemicals since it was published in 1987. The state can add chemicals to the Prop 65 list using four mechanisms: 1) the State’s qualified expert mechanism; 2) formally required to label mechanism; 3) labor code listing mechanism; and 4) authoritative body mechanism.
OEHHA is holding a public meeting of the Proposition 65 Carcinogen Identification Committee (CIC) on Nov. 17, 2020, to discuss these seven chemicals. The meeting will be held virtually, beginning at 10:00 a.m. (PDT) and will last until all business is conducted or until 5:00 p.m. (PDT).
OEHHA has made available a prioritization document reviewing data indicating carcinogenicity for these seven chemicals.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be host a webinar on Sept. 30 for stakeholders to review its risk mitigation process after risk evaluation, focusing on 1-bromopropane (1-BP). The agency has finalized risk evaluations under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for both 1-BP and methylene chloride, and EPA held a webinar on the latter on Sept. 16. During the upcoming webinar, EPA will address its process for issuing a risk mitigation rule and industry engagement.
By law, EPA must propose a rule within one year of finalizing a risk evaluation, and it must issue a final rule within two years.
EPA, with ACA, will be hosting a webinar for ACA members only to talk about risk mitigation for methylene chloride and 1-bromopropane, as it relates to ACA members’ products. A date and time is yet to be determined.
EPA has identified the following relevant uses for methylene chloride and 1-bromopropane where the agency reached a final determination of unreasonable risk.
In the methylene chloride risk evaluation, EPA found unreasonable risk for the following uses relevant to ACA members’ products:
Processing – Incorporation into formulation (workers and ONU’s)
Processing – Repackaging (ONU’s)
Adhesives and sealants, industrial and commercial use (workers and ONU’s)
Paints and coatings, industrial and commercial use (workers and ONU’s)
Paint and coating removers, industrial and commercial use (workers and ONU’s)
Adhesive and caulk removers, industrial and commercial use (workers and ONU’s)
Anti-adhesive agents, industrial and commercial use (workers)
Consumer adhesives and sealants (consumers and by-standers)
Consumer brush cleaners (consumers)
Consumer adhesive and caulk removers (consumers and by-standers)
Crafting glue, cement and concrete (consumers and by-standers)
Anti-adhesive agents (consumers and by-standers)
Carbon remover and brush cleaner (consumers and by-standers)
For the 1-BP risk evaluation, EPA issued findings of unreasonable risk for:
Processing, incorporation into formulation (unreasonable risk for workers and ONU’s)
Adhesive chemicals (industrial / commercial use) – spray adhesive for foam cushion manufacturing and other uses (unreasonable risk for workers and ONU’s)
Anti-adhesive agents, industrial / commercial use (unreasonable risk for workers and ONU’s)
Adhesive accelerant, industrial / commercial, arts/crafts (unreasonable risk for workers and ONU’s)
Laboratory chemicals (unreasonable risk for workers and ONU’s)
Consumer adhesive accelerant, arts / crafts (unreasonable risk to consumers and bystanders)
Consumer anti-adhesive agent, arts / crafts (unreasonable risk to consumers and bystanders)
EPA found the following uses for 1-BP do not pose an unreasonable risk: Disposal and exposure to the general population, through sediment, drinking water or surface water.
If you’ve been following my journey, you’ll know that I purchased a commercial space, called The Wood Shed, here in the Hill Country of Texas. In the back yard area there is this small grove of live oaks and at the time there was a worn out tree house spanning across some of them.
I tore it down almost immediately but then started on building this 700 square foot floating deck that uses only the surrounding trees to support it. This was a massive undertaking that is most certainly among my favorite of all time builds so let me start at the beginning and explain the process.
The first thing I need to mention is this took months of planning. Jacob, who is the lead carpenter on this build does have a background in building tree houses but we still ran the plans through several engineers, had the trees inspected by an arborist, and Jacob even did a detail 3D model of the entire structure and trees.
When building in the trees, it’s important to remember that they are living, growing, moving things so you have to allow for their movement or you can end up damaging the tree and having a failing structure. There are these special bolts called TABS, tree attachment bolts, that are massive and are specially designed to build in the trees. Each one of these is rated at 10,000 lbs which is nuts to me.
This threaded portion here will be inserted into the tree until half of the bose is buried in the trunk.
Then the deck will be resting on this portion of the bolt which will be sticking out.
In order to get a level, all of these TABs need to be drilled on the same plane however, getting a level line on 8 different trees was kind of a problem but Jake showed me a new trick for it called a water level. It’s a simple tool made from a clear flexible hose with water in it then it works on the principal that water will always find it’s own level regardless if the ends of the tube are touching each other or 50 feet apart.
To use the tool, I would hold my end of the tube still, at the starting elevation then Jake could move his end of the tube to transfer that elevation to the next tree.
After repeating on the other trees and getting the TAB locations marked, we started predrilling. The TABs need about 8 1/2” of depth, so we made a mark on the auger to have a visual on the progress. The important thing to pay attention to on this step is that we were going in straight. Not only square to the tree, but also keeping the bit level. To check for square, one of us would hold a square to give the driller a visual reference on the left and right position of the drill.
Then I would stop every little bit to check a level and make sure my up and down position was also good.
Once the depth was reached, now the bit is switched out to a different bit that will enlarge the outside of the hole and allow for the boss to nest into the tree.
This bit looks like a forstner bit but has a long center pin that fits in the pre drill hole I just drilled which helps keep the forester centered.
This step was incredibly challenging. We needed to go about 3 1/2” into the tree and just to give you a better idea on time, this one hole took 45 mins. These live oaks are no joke!
After getting it drilled through, now was to insert the TAB into place. A few things here, we would sanitize the threads and anything else that woulld be coming in contact with the freshly drilled hole….maybe overkill, but it’s an easy thing to do.
When threading it in, it’s again important that it goes in level so after every few turns, we would throw a level on it.
It’s amazing just how quickly this gets too hard to turn by hand. So we added in some leverage by attaching a pipe wrench to the TAB. Then, when that wasn’t enough, adding a cheater bar to the pipe wrench.
This turned out to be everybody’s favorite part of the process as we all took turns rotating the TAB into place.
There were only 6 TABs but it took us an entire day to get them all set. Something we ended up trying to make the drilling step go faster was to wrap a ratchet strap around the tree and the drill. Then as Jake would hold the trigger and keep the drill straight, I would slowly tighten down on the ratchet, allowing it to assist in pushing the drill into the cut.
To give you an idea on how effective this was, the first three holes took us about 45 mins a piece to drill, but the strap cut that time down to 10 mins….and it saved our shoulders and chests from getting black and blue.
On to Day 2!
One beam, the smallest here up front, was the only one we were able to make ourselves, the other two had to be specially ordered and delivered.
It was actually really cool watching it all get delivered because the two beams showed up on their own truck and the driver was able to tilt up his bed and dump it directly on site. If you’re in Texas and have timber needs then I’ll leave you a link below or HERE.
We started by trying to set the back most beam, which is the second largest. It weighs 470 lbs and is around 24′ long.
The first obstacle was simply how to move such a heavy piece into place. It turns out we were able to wrap a few straps around it and use the power of all three of us to drag it over.
Next thing to figure out was to get it lifted 9’ in the air….we were going to try a few chain hoists, but since I have a fork lift, decided to try that first. That worked exceptionally well.
Not only was it easy lifting but the ability to side shift the forks and therefore the beam left and right was easy peasy. However, it’s worth noting that Jake has lifted heavy items like this before with just the use of chain hoists.
Ok, that went smoothly, but now it was on to the biggest beam….this one weighs 470 and is 24 feet long.
We actually tried the same method of pulling it but had no luck. So I went and grabbed another useful tool….a side by side. We strapped onto one side of the beam and used it to drag it forward.
Once the tail passed the trees, I used the fork lift to pick it up and bring it back into place. This way we could use the side by side once again to drag it in to the groove of trees and thread it into place.
Every step on this project was something new to figure out. We would start off with the main objective of something, in this case, we need to get this beam over and up there, then just work out how to do that little by little until eventually, our objective was met and we could look to repeating the process on the next challenge.
After setting the two largest beams, setting the third was a piece of cake! To make the smallest one….which btw: small in this case is 34’ feet long and weighs 950lbs …..we cut each beam to the same length then lamented it together to make up a three layered beam.
Even though it’s heavy, Jake and I found it wasn’t too heavy for us to simply lift it up and carry it over into place.
Once all three beams were in place, now we could attach the unique hardware. Each beam has two TABs. At one end there is a static arrangement…
…while the other end has a dynamic arrangement.
The static will stay stationary but the dynamic has a long slot that the TAB goes through, which will allow movement room as the tree grows or moves.
First two days and two major steps down, now it was on to day three which was another tough one….setting the joists. The element that really makes this a tough job is that we need to get every single one 10’ in the air. Also, because of our spans and load, every piece of material we’re working with is not only huge and also very heavy.
We started the day off by looking at the plans and marking off where each joist needed to be located on the beams. I can not stress to you how incredibly valuable having a set of detailed plans was. Jake invested so much time perfecting things digitally in the 3D model where every angle and length was accurate so that when we moved to the next step, he could easily call out the exact location or length or angle or answer to any other question posed. If you’re tackling something as equally complex, I highly recommend the time investment.
So one thing that made joist day so tough is the weight of everything and getting every board lifted up and moved into place, but another was every joist required two different angles to be cut in on either end. Because I didn’t just want a massive floating deck that was 9’ in the air with no posts going down to the ground…I also wanted the deck to have curves which meant the front of a joist could need a 16.4 degree cut but the back might need a 117 degree cut.
We worked out a system where Jacob would make all the cuts on the joists, on the ground, then him and I would helf the joist up and onto the beams where David was stationed. From there, we would not only place the joist on it’s tick mark on the beam but also make sure the over hang off the beam was correct.
There was a ton of blocking needed throughout the deck, not only in between each joists where each beam was but also around the trees. So David and I would keep ourselves busy while Jake would be cutting the next joist, by adding in the blocking. The blocking in between the joists prevent the joists from being able to roll.
then the blocking around the trees of course gives us framing members to attach to while also giving the tree plenty of room to grow in the future. With these being live oaks, we left about 7” of room on all sides of the trees.
Just a tip if you’re working up high like this, we constantly would screw in temporary scraps on the underside of the joists to create a shelf to hold up the next board we would be putting in. This way you don’t have to hold it flush on top.
The deck is divided in kinda of two distinct sides with three joists laminated together being here.
Day three was us setting these three joists then everything to the left side.
Day four we all showed up kinda smoked but ready to repeat the process to set the joists to the right of the three joists.
The second day of any process is always easier in the sense that the system is figured out, the tools needed are set up and a groove between team members is established. Which is always a great feeling for me.
One unique thing we had to figure out on this right side of the deck was coming off at an angle from the three joists to the front beams. This was complicated because One) the steep angles were a new challenge for Jacob to figure out how to cut with a circular saw. The problem is the blade can only be set so far over. He ended up making up a jig that he could rest the shoe of the saw on to raise it up higher on one side and give him the additional angle needed. Then he would make two cuts in order to get the depth needed. That’s a great trick.
Then the second thing to figure out was attaching them securely. We ended up cutting and placing these small blocks that have an angle cut in on one side. This way, as the joist was placed in it’s needed location we would have plenty of meat to attach into.
Throughout the entire deck we were using a combination of screws and nails. Typically using nails to pin items into place and get them positioned and set but then coming back with screws to squeeze things together. In some areas, like these angled joists we would also come back with metal straps and bolts to reinforce the connection. Other hardware used was joists hangers on any joists not on a beam….for these we grabbed the standard hangers but gave them all a coat of black paint before installing them.
After the angled joists were installed we went back to tossing up then installing the regular joists that spanned from the front beam to the back.
It was really cool at this point to walk under the deck not only is it beautiful to look at but it’s a crazy cool feeling to watch the progress as the day goes on.
Also on the front, it was spectacular to see the curves coming to life. You could walk under the front edge, looking up, and follow the bends that definitely give it a gracefulness but added so much additional work.
Day 5 started with another slightly unique system, sister joists together in order to span from the center, largest beam, to the front most beam. These will make up the forward most area of the deck that will be the tightest radius but create a very quaint and cozy viewing or seating option, once the deck is complete.
It’s a fun thing to experience, building a deck in the trees….because the more boards you throw up and attach, the more walking area you’re giving yourself. To get to one point to the other we would most often just balance beam across and stay up on top, but scaffolding and as many tall ladders as possible under was also a time saver. Oh and if we were working in one area for a bit, then just throwing up a full sheet of plywood to use as a sitting area and work bench was very handy.
At this point, we were all three very tired….it’s not only hard work but it’s also summer in Texas. Thank goodness we had the wonderful shade of the trees themselves as we were building. But looking out over the deck from either the bottom side or the top side, it was extremely easy to feel proud and also excited by what we were doing.
Now of course there is a lot more to go but I’ve had to break this project into a few parts because there is so much involved. In the next episode I’ll start right here and show you how we capped off and joined all the tails of the joists to eventually create the stunning curves you see in the final deck.
Stay tuned if you’re interested in seeing it and leave me a comment down below on what you think about it so far.
We had other plans for this week’s post, but then Hurricane Sally made her way ever-so-slowly through the gulf and gave us a few solid days of rain, rain, and more rain. Thankfully it was nothing more than that (no power lost, and no flooding for us), which has us feeling incredibly grateful – and we hope everyone who was more directly affected is safe and their homes are ok. Since we couldn’t take the outdoor photos we had planned for an exterior update this week, we realized we should build two blog pages that had been sorely missing for the last, oh, four months. So to everyone who has been asking for those, we finally made them!
First, we’ve got a brand-spankin’ new Before & After page for our house here in Florida. Click HERE to see it.
“After” may be a bit presumptuous since none of our spaces have reached what we believe will be their “absolute final stages” (it has only been 4 months!) but they’ve all come so far – and we have to admit that they feel extremely good to us already!
We are all looking for the perfect home – but some of us are prepared to work at the imperfect one we have to get there. According to a new survey by Pilkington it takes approximately £26,000 of renovations to achieve the “perfect” home after moving in, and it takes on average five years after […]
The process of taking raw material and turning it into something functional, has always struck me as a magical process. So to have the opportunity to start by splitting a log then spending my days transforming it’s pieces into a finely crafted piece of furniture, that will most certainly lost my entire lifetime, is extraordinary.
Throw in the fact that I’m in the tranquil Tennessee countryside surrounded by hand tools and good company, there is no wonder I always come back reinvigorated and at peace.
Greg Pennington is a master chairmaker in Hendersonville, TN who I met only a year ago but who I feel like I’ve known lifetimes. Not only is his friendly demeanor infectious, but he is an incredible teacher full of valuable knowledge and information.
Building at Greg’s always starts the same, with splitting a log to then turn into a piece of furniture. He not only teaches you how to use the traditional tools for this task but also the reason behind it.
If you split a log along it’s grain and let it dictate it’s path then it will be worlds stronger than a similar piece you cut at the bandsaw or tablesaw. And if you’re interested in building a chair to last a lifetime, and then some, then that strength is needed. This is just one golden nugget of information I learned from Greg during the class.
I’m predisposition to feel at home in a shop because it’s very much my happy place. However, Greg’s shop brings on a new level of joy and comfort that I don’t experience anywhere else. The atmosphere, and the work, makes me feel relaxed, at peace, and meditative even. It’s an environment that I can potentially joke with a friend on an adjacent shave horse, or sit in an easy silence and listen to the unique tool noises.
Greg is making chair making more accessible by offering templates for several different chairs, jigs, and rockers, this one included. There are links in the description for Greg’s class schedule as well as the templates available.
Greg’s class offers me the opportunity to use an assortment of tools that I don’t typically incorporate in my normal projects. Coming from using mostly power tools, it’s interesting and exciting to me to see and understand which hand tools takes the place of which power tool.
I’ve done power carving before where I’ve removed a lot of material at once to try and shape something, and it was very satisfying. But it’s just a different sort of satisfation, using a scorp and feeling the sensation of removing one chunk at a time.
Then moving to a tranvisher to smooth out the rough marks left from the scorp…
then moving to a spoke shave to remove the rough marks left from the travisher…
to then move to a card scraper and be left with an unmarred seat that looks smooth and flawless.
Making this very traditional Windsor chair, it’s easy in the sense that Greg won’t allow you to mess it up, but it’s a lot of work. It’s full of details that require patient and attention but the fact that it takes so much intentional thought and movement, makes the end of the week’s result that much more satisfying.
It’s a little surreal to me that I will have this item for the rest of my life. Wherever I go, this chair will be with me. Then even after I pass, it could very well go through another person’s lifespan as well. I can only think of one or two other things that share the same longevity. So this is special, and my hands made it, out of a tree.
Sticking to the traditional Windsor style, after I perfected the chair, I painted it with Real Milk Paint. First with two coats of red then two coats of black. The idea behind the color scheme is so when wear spots start showing up on small areas of the chair, slight red will show through instead of bare wood.
I’m using Real Milk Paint for this final finishing touch. Real Milk Paint is known for their traditional color palette which is based on antique furniture. This is an environmental friendly, non-toxic, powedered paint where you just add water. The fact that it comes in a powder form means it doesn’t have a shelf life and also gives you the freedom to mix up your needed amount on a project to project basis. It has an extremely fast dry time of 30 mins so I was able to get all my coats of paint done in a single day instead of prolonging the steps over multiple days. I love Real Milk Paint because it acts much like a wood stain, in that it absorbs into the wood rather than lay on top of it. This allows for all the intricate details of the piece to be seen, even through the paint.
If you’re curious, the tape on the bottom is applied before paint, so that after things are buffed and prepped for oil, I would have a clean spot to sign and date my work before applying a few coats of oil to it.
If you are looking for a project as a relaxing escape or a unique learning experience, I highly recommend taking a class from Greg. You’ll not only be able to take away a mind full of useful information but also an heirloom piece of furniture that you’ll always be proud of.
If you’ve followed along for a while you’ve seen our bedroom fireplace get a few updates over on Instagram Stories, but today we’re telling the whole sordid tale of how our update ideas recently veered off-course (and how we ended up at Plan B when Plan A went bust). Last time you saw it on the blog, it looked a little something like this:
similar stools |art | frame for art | similar rug | similar pot | wheeled plant stand
But we should rewind for a second. It was pretty bleak looking when we first started Operation Revive The Fireplace. There was a bunch of dried glue and gunk leftover from some tiles that had once covered the surround (not to mention a rusty screen and general grime). But Sherry had that look in her eye that said “don’t second guess me, this is going to work” and after nearly a decade and a half of marriage I have learned not to question this look.
California regulatory activity around Architectural and Industrial Maintenance Coatings volatile organic compound (VOC) content has ramped up since the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted its 2019 AIM Suggested Control Measure (SCM) in May 2019. Various California Air Districts use the CARB SCM to develop their AIM rule revisions, which have trended toward lower and lower VOC content limits. This is because the 2019 CARB AIM SCM is based on the California South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) AIM Rule 1113.
Notably, the SCAQMD Rule 1113 is the country’s strictest regulation covering VOC in AIM products and includes over 20 limits that are lower than the current 2007 AIM SCM.
On May 28, 2020, CARB adopted its 2020 AIM SCM, which includes a new Photovoltaic coating category and limit. Several California Air Districts have recently proposed or have adopted the SCMs. The following provides an update on AIM VOC regulatory activity around California.
On April 17, 2020, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District was the first California Air District to adopt the 2019 CARB AIM SCM. San Joaquin also adopted SCAQMD Small Container Exemption (SCE) contingency measure, and other districts including San Diego will likely follow. If San Joaquin does not meet the 2008 National 8 hour Ozone Standard, in 2031 the SCAQMD SCE contingency measure would automatically become effective. While the contingency measures do not include additional time to come into compliance, San Joaquin committed to work with industry and provide as much notice as possible to give industry time to comply with the contingency measure.
More recently, the Ventura County Air Quality Management District, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District, El Dorado, Mojave Desert and Monterey Bay Air Resources Districts released proposals to revise their AIM rules. San Diego and Ventura are adopting the 2019 SCM whereas Mojave and Monterey are adopting the 2020 SCM. El Dorado proposed to make minor edits to its rule (2007 SCM), and San Diego has proposed to include the SCAQMD Small Container Contingency measure.
Several additional California Air Districts are expected to propose additional AIM VOC rulemakings in the near future.
ACA’s AIM VOC Committee tracks and comments on the various AIM VOC regulations. ACA members, please contact David Darling if you would like to join to the AIM VOC committee.
Inkmaker srl has announced the acquisition of German company SWESA that specializes in customized dosing-systems. According to the company, this acquisition is another milestone in achieving Inkmaker Group’s global objective of offering total process-engineering to its clients.
“Over the past few years Inkmaker has managed to successfully increase its business in Germany. The growth realized necessitated a next step, and the acquisition of SWESA is the logical outcome of it. SWESA’s knowledge and technology is a perfect fit for the Inkmaker Group, and we will continue the production of SWESA units in Germany,” said Christophe Rizzo, CEO of the Inkmaker Group.
Managing director and owner of SWESA Roland Steinberg will continue to play an active role in sales as SWESA takes on a greater role within the Inkmaker group of companies. SWESA will continue its focus on dispensing systems for the food packaging, office furniture, tissues, and heavy-duty corrugated packaging industries from its base in Eltville am Rhein, Germany and will continue to support its existing SWESA customers. Additionally, the company stated that it will benefit from the support available from the Inkmaker group of companies’ global businesses — including offices in Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Australasia — as well as their combined global network of partners who will offer greater sales and support to their clients.
In July, the Washington State Department of Ecology (DOE) submitted its Priority Consumer Products report to the Washington Legislature and included Paints on the list under the “Safer Products for Washington” program. Washington DOE included food and beverage cans (bisphenols) and cited concerns over inadvertent Polychlorinated biphenyls (iPCBs) as the reasoning.
Notably, DOE has identified all paints — not just paints used by consumers — in the scope of iPCBs under the Safer Products program.
In 2019, the Washington State Legislature directed DOE to implement a regulatory program to reduce toxic chemicals in consumer products (Chapter 70.365 RCW), known as the “Safer Products for Washington.” The Legislature identified five priority chemical classes: flame retardants; Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); Phenolic compounds; and Phthalates. The law requires Ecology to identify priority consumer products that are significant sources or uses of the chemical classes. DOE suggests that iPCBs may form as a byproduct in the production of certain chlorinated color pigments including Diarylide yellows, Phthalocyanine blues and greens, and possibly certain titanium dioxides.
DOE is scheduled to complete Phase 3 and over the next two years will identify alternatives and report back to the Legislature any proposed regulatory actions on June 1, 2022. Then, DOE would adopt any such regulations by June 1, 2023. Ultimately, DOE could decide “no regulatory action is needed,” if alternatives are not available or feasible, or DOE could possibly restrict the use of the certain pigments that contain iPCBs.
ACA’s Product Stewardship Committee and PCB Workgroup are monitoring this issue and are engaged with Washington DOE. ACA members, please contact David Darling if you would like to join the PCB Workgroup.